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Tumor growth and spread depends on the exact cellular site of origin of the cancer. In the early stages, curative treatment may include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Damage to this nerve can result in paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle producing a characteristic “winged” scapula. Y When a patient has a lump in the breast, a diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by a biopsy and histological evaluation.

R Lymph vessels pass to axillary, supraclavicular, parasternal, and abdominal lymph nodes, as well as the opposite breast.

Kanceri i gjirit – Wikipedia

Subcutaneous lymphatic obstruction and tumor growth pull on connective tissue ligaments in the breast resulting in the appearance of an orange peel texture peau d’orange on the surface of the breast. Y Further subcutaneous spread can induce a rare manifestation of breast cancer that produces a hard, woody texture to the skin cancer en cuirasse.


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These factors affect the response to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. I Closely applied to the medial axillary wall is the long thoracic nerve.

Breast tumors spread via the lymphatics and veins, or by direct invasion. S Within the axilla the breast tissue must be removed from the medial gjiri wall. I Further imaging may include bone scanning using radioactive isotopes, which kancefi avidly taken up by the tumor metastases in bone. Once confirmed, the clinician must attempt to stage the tumor. Containment of nodal metastatic breast cancer is therefore potentially difficult because it can spread through many lymph node groups.

L Staging the tumor means defining the: L A mastectomy surgical removal of the breast involves excision of the breast tissue to the pectoralis major muscle and fascia. Breast cancer develops in the cells of the acini, lactiferous ducts, and lobules of the breast. San Francisco Shkoder Restaurant.


S Computed tomography CT scanning of the body may be carried out to look for any spread to the lungs pulmonary metastasesliver hepatic metastasesor bone bony metastases. Email or Phone Password Forgot account? R It is also possible to damage the nerve to the latissimus dorsi muscle, and this may affect extension, medial rotation, and adduction of the humerus.

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Lymph drainage of the breast is complex.