Dennettia tripetala G. Baker (Annonaceae), or pepper fruit tree, is a well-known Nigerian spicy medicinal plant. The mineral, vitamin and nutrient composition of. Here are the 18 wondrous benefits of pepper fruit Dennettia tripetala you definitely need to know. Study shows that this fruit is good for us. Abstract. The study revealed the safety of Dennettia tripetala seed on man and the environment. Adult male rats weighing – kg.

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The study revealed the denhettia of Dennettia tripetala seed on man and the environment. Adult male rats weighing 0. The median lethal dose LD 50 was estimated using revised up and down procedure.

The LD 50 for D. The LD 50 recorded strongly indicates that D. The botanical insecticide, D.


Baker Annonaceae also known as pepper fruit tree Ikpi and Nku, is an indigenous spicy tripetalq plant in Nigeria, whose seed whole, powder, or extract is used as an effective insecticide in grain protection against weevils in particular Agbakwuru et al. The seeds are used in various forms to protect maize grains in storage.

Furthermore, the seeds are popularly stored and used internationally; consumed singly; or taken with kola nut, garden egg, or palm wine, particularly during cultural entertainment of guests Enwere, ; Okwu et al.

The plant is common in the tropical rainforest region of Nigeria and occasionally found in Savanna areas Okwu et al.

Health Benefits of Pepper fruit (Dennettia tripetala) | The Point

Some communities in southern Nigeria reportedly utilize the leaves, roots, and fruits for medicinal purpose Iwu, ; Ikpi and Nku, As masticators and stimulants, D. Dennettia tripetala seeds are applied to diets of pregnant and postpartum women to aid uterine contraction Achinewhu et al.

The seed has generally been reported to be used as spice in flavouring and seasoning foods, such as meat, vegetable, soup, and sausage Ikpi and Nku, The important nutritive substances of D.

From the above background, it is obvious that D. Food and medicine apart, it is as well necessary to ascertain the safety margin of a grain protectant for the benefit of humans and their environment. There is public advocacy to use plant materials in pest control because they are safe and eco-friendly Adedire and Lajide, Many members of the family Annonaceae are known to possess various chemical compounds that act as antifeedants, repellents, and growth or development inhibitors against many insect species Odeyemi et al.

Seed powder and oil extracts of Dennettia have been reported to be particularly effective against Sitophilus zeamais infestation in stored maize Adedire, However, there is belief that plant-derived insecticides are safer than synthetic chemicals such as permethrin because they are of natural origin Weinzierl and Henn, This is not always the case Odeyemi et al. Indeed, several toxicological and histopathological effects have been associated with plant materials Odeyemi et al.

It was revealed that moderate to high doses of Dennettia tripetala fruit extract administered to albino Wistar rats caused haematoxicity to the animals Ikpi and Nku, Toxicological and histopathological evaluations of leaf extract of Paullinia pinnata L.

Despite the use of D. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the toxic and histopathological effects of D. Air-dried samples of D.

dennetyia Thereafter, the suspension was preliminarily filtered with cotton wool held over the opening of the flask and refiltered using Whatman No 1 filter paper.


Reconstitution was achieved by dissolving mg of the extract in 2 ml of solvent 0. Tween 80 polysorbate was used to dissolve the oil extract. Thirty healthy young adult male albino rats of age 1. The rats were randomly assigned to five groups of six animals per group in standard cages.

The initial weights of the animals ranged from 0. They were properly maintained in the laboratory at ambient temperature They were acclimatized for 2 weeks prior to the commencement of the experiments Saganuwan, The experiment was repeated six times. Median lethal dose LD 50 was estimated using revised up-and-down procedure described by Bruce and Saganuwan Five healthy male rats were randomly selected one from each group without replacement and dosed after an overnight fast.

The first animal survived; therefore, a dose progression using logarithm of 3. The square root of dennettia of geometric mean of the last survived dose and mortality-causing dose was used to estimate the LD From the result of the LD 50sublethal doses of D. This ensured that the quantities of the test substance in the diet did not interfere with normal nutrition.

Feed used was standard basal diet produced by United Africa Company, Nigeria. Rats in group I served as control and they were fed the basal diet.

Group V rats were included to determine the comparative safety of D. The chemical grade of permethrin used was necessarily pesticide. The albino rats were allowed to feed for 30 days and feed consumption data were taken and dennrttia. Final weights of the rats were measured at the end of the 30 days prior to blood collection and dissection of the animals following euthanasia.

A blood sample 2. The blood sample was centrifuged dfnnettia a g for 10 min to separate the serum for assay of liver and kidney biochemical indices of the albino rats. The spectrophotometer was set at zero at nm with distilled water. Absorbance was read and recorded at 1 min. Tripetsla continued at the same temperature and absorbance was again recorded at 2 and 3 min.

An aliquot of 0. The absorbance was then read at 1 min interval for 3 min at nm, and the AP activity was subsequently determined. The total protein was determined by the direct Biuret method Gomall, Bovine serum albumin was used as the standard protein and the total protein was subsequently calculated using the formula:.

One thousand microlitres of deionized water were added to the mixture and the absorbance of sample and the standard were measured against the reagent blank. The optical density T 1 was read 60 s after mixing the sample and working reagents. Exactly 60 s after the first reading, a second reading was taken T 2 for both standard mixture and the sample.

The sectioning method described by Akparie was used for the histological examination. The method has the merit of preserving the relations of cells and tissues to one another. The embedded organs were sectioned using a microtome and were stained with haematoxylin—eosin Silva et al. Excess stain was removed with tap water.

After clearing in xylene, Canada balsam was added and cover slips placed on the slides. Data were then subjected to one- way analysis of variance. Table 1 presents the mean quantity of feed consumed by each rat trlpetala day.

Significant differences were not observed in the body weights of the animal groups at the commencement of the experiment. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanolic extract of D. The results on the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney of albino rats are presented in Table 3.


Although alanine aminotransferse increased with increasing dose of D. There were no significant alterations in the level of serum AST in rats fed basal diet and basal diet plus D.

There was no significant difference in the total protein content of all the treatment diets investigated.

Normal control rats group I had highest level of total protein. The concentration of serum creatinine decreased with increasing dose tripetalw D.

Increase in dosage of D. Haemorrhage indicated by long arrow and vein congestion indicated by short arrow in the kidney of rats fed: The increase in dennethia weight in rats fed standard basal diet group Debnettia and in rats fed standard basal diet plus D. The acute toxicity test of the present study showed that the LD 50 value of D. This suggests that the extract has a tropetala high safety margin.

Ikpi and Nku in a similar study recorded that the plant material showed a moderately high safety margin. Furthermore, Odeyemi et al. However, relationships between serum biochemical indices and liver and kidney functions of albino rats, in particular, have been reported by Ileke et al.

Therefore, it is fairly well documented that the dennwttia of tissue function parameters play an important role in disease investigation and diagnosis Yakubu et al. They are released into the serum usually when there is damage to the hepatic membrane due to chemical attack Oluba et al.

Therefore, serum levels of the enzymes are useful indicators of extent of hepatic damage Bamisaye et al. The non-significant effect of ALT in rats fed standard basal diet or standard basal diet plus D. However, its increase with increase in concentration of the botanical insecticide may suggest organ injury or dysfunction.


This is in agreement with the observations of Odutuga et al. The normal values of AST recorded in albino rats fed standard basal diet or standard basal diet plus D.

However, the group V rats that had significantly high level of AST possibly dennetia myocardial infarction Karmen, and liver toxicity Ileke et al. AP is reportedly a maker enzyme for the trietala membrane and endoplasmic reticulum damage and often used to measure the yripetala of the plasma membrane Akanji et al.

The observed reduction in vennettia AP level in the animal groups supplemented with D. It may invariably cause reduction in the phosphate groups available for the phosphorylation of ethanolamine and choline required for the production of important phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine Bamisaye et al. The reduction in serum AP may also imply interference in the syntheses of nuclear acids in the rats fed basal diet plus the botanical insecticide Ramalingam and Vimaladevi, and this has implications for effective performance of the testes of the rats.

This finding agrees with the report of Ileke et al. The serum total protein evaluated in this study is a useful index of impairment of the functional capacity of the liver and kidney Odeyemi et al. Such low level of total proteins in the animal groups with diets supplemented with D.