A Hilbert curve is a continuous fractal space-filling curve first described by the German mathematician David Hilbert in , as a variant of the space-filling Peano curves discovered by Giuseppe Peano in . Mathematische Annalen 38 (), – ^ : Sur une courbe, qui remplit toute une aire plane. Une courbe de Peano est une courbe plane paramétrée par une fonction continue sur l’intervalle unité [0, 1], surjective dans le carré [0, 1]×[0, 1], c’est-à- dire que. Dans la construction de la courbe de Hilbert, les divers carrés sont parcourus . cette page d’Alain Esculier (rubrique courbe de Peano, équations de G. Lavau).

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Most well-known space-filling curves are constructed iteratively as the limit of a sequence of piecewise linear continuous curves, each one more closely approximating the space-filling limit.

Because of this example, some authors use the phrase “Peano curve” to refer more generally to any space-filling curve. Peano’s curve may be constructed by a sequence of steps, where the i th step constructs a set S i of squares, and a sequence P i of the centers of the squares, from the set and sequence constructed in the previous step. Articles containing video clips Articles with example C code.

In 3 dimensions, self-avoiding approximation curves can even contain knots. Fractal canopy Space-filling curve H tree. The entire square is viewed as composed of 4 regions, arranged 2 by 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fractal canopy Space-filling curve H tree. Retrieved from ” https: The xy2d function works top down, starting with the most significant bits of x and yand building up the most significant bits of d first.

His choice to avoid any appeal to graphical visualization was, no doubt, motivated by a desire for a well-founded, completely rigorous proof owing nothing to pictures. It was also easy to extend Peano’s example to continuous curves without endpoints, which filled the entire n -dimensional Euclidean space where n is 2, 3, or any other positive integer. Peano’s article also ends by observing that the technique can be obviously extended to other odd bases besides base 3.


The two subcurves intersect if the intersection of the two images is non-empty. The Hilbert Curve is commonly used among rendering images or videos. This page was last edited on 25 Januaryat It is possible to implement Hilbert curves efficiently even when the data space does not form a square. Views Read Edit View history.

A space-filling curve’s approximations can be self-avoiding, as the figures above illustrate. Buddhabrot Orbit trap Pickover stalk. The Hilbert curve is a simpler variant of the same idea, based on subdividing squares into four equal smaller squares instead of into nine equal smaller squares. They have also been used to help compress data warehouses.

Giuseppe Peano

Given the variety of applications, it is useful to have algorithms to map in both directions. A year later, David Hilbert published in the same journal a variation of Peano’s construction Hilbert For xy2d, it starts at the top level of the entire square, and works its way down to the lowest level of individual cells.

In mathematical analysisa space-filling curve is a curve whose range contains the entire 2-dimensional unit square or more generally an n -dimensional unit hypercube. The two mapping algorithms work cojrbe similar ways. Common programs such as Blender and Cinema 4D use the Hilbert Curve to trace the objects, and render the scene.

Conversely a courne metric space is second-countable.

Peano curve

Sometimes, the curve is identified with the range or image of the function the set cojrbe all possible values of the functioninstead of the function itself. Continuous mappings Fractal curves Iterated function system fractals. For multidimensional databases, Hilbert order has been proposed to be used instead of Z order because it has better locality-preserving behavior.

Hilbert’s article was the first to include a picture helping to visualize the construction technique, essentially the same as illustrated here.

Hilbert curve – Wikipedia

There will sometimes be points where the xy coordinates are close but their d values are far apart. It is also possible to define curves without endpoints to be a continuous function on the real line or on the open unit cokrbe 0, 1.


There is a single FOR loop that iterates through levels. Code to do this would map from 1D to 2D, and the Hilbert curve is sometimes used because it does not create the distracting patterns that would be visible to the eye if the order were simply left to right across each row of pixels. Graphics Gems II [10] discusses Hilbert curve coherency, and provides implementation.

Both the true Hilbert curve and its discrete approximations are useful because they give a mapping between 1D and 2D space that preserves locality fairly well. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hilbert curve. Continuous mappings Fractal curves. For example, the pexno of IP addresses used by computers can be mapped into a picture using the Hilbert curve.

Giuseppe Peano – Wikiquote

It was common to associate the vague notions of thinness and 1-dimensionality to curves; all normally encountered curves were re differentiable that is, have piecewise continuous derivativesand such curves cannot fill up the entire unit square. Spaces that are the continuous image of a unit interval are sometimes called Peano spaces.

The Hahn — Mazurkiewicz theorem is the following characterization of spaces that are the continuous image of curves:.

Peano was motivated by an earlier result of Georg Cantor that these two sets have the same cardinality. The problem Peano solved was whether such a mapping could courge continuous; i.

Peano was motivated by Georg Coyrbe ‘s earlier counterintuitive result that the infinite number of points in a unit interval is the same cardinality as the infinite number of points in any finite-dimensional manifoldsuch as the unit square.