Get this from a library! Abusir and Saqqara in the year [Miroslav Bárta; Jaromír Krejčí;]. This collection of articles provides an overview, on the occasion of the Millennium , of Czech work at the Egyptian cemeteries of Abusir and Saqqara over the last. Abusir and Saqqara in the Year URL: /~krejci/AbuSaqqhtml. Format.

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Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000

The tomb of Menekhibnekau is the third largest Late Period shaft tomb excavated at the necropolis at Abusir so far. Although it seems to be contemporary with the neighbouring structures of Udjahorresnet and Iufaa, it shows some differences in its orientation, arrangement of its subterranean layout and its decoration and texts.

Judging from the tiny remnants of its superstructure for the most part destroyed by later stone-cuttingthe tomb of Menekhibnekau might have wbusir the most magnificent structure of its kind within the entire cemetery; that corresponds to the number and importance of his titles saqara offices.

In spite of the fact that its burial chamber had already been robbed in antiquity, several items of the original burial equipment and other artefacts have been found here. Louis Chaix Cattle skulls bucrania: A universal symbol all around the world. The case of Kerma Sudan 7 Abstract: Skulls of cattle or bucrania are widely represented in various contexts all around the world. In different modern populations, bucrania are often linked to the funeral world as a symbol of the tear of death.

In Africa, since the Early Neolithic period, bucrania are attested in high numbers from Kerma culture cemeteries, a fact which indicates the economic and religious importance of the cattle. In some particular tombs more than 5, bucrania were found. Their saqqarra is also known from Ancient Egypt and from some Saqqara tombs. Some iin are artificially deformed, with parallel horns, similar to some pictures found in the Saharan rock-art.

Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000. Supplement of Archív orientální.

This artificial modification of horns continues to be practiced by modern tribes from the southern Sudan, testifying to a long and living tradition.

Asia — Africa — Madagascar — Sudan — cattle — bucrania — horns — symbolism — deformation. This contribution presents and discusses the large quantity of canine remains uncovered in four seasons of work in the Saqqara Cemetery North — by a team from Macquarie University, Sydney. Two different types of burials were observed, and while one of these can be classified as the known type of votive animal mummy, the second does not fit into any of the four categories commonly described in the relevant literature.

Based on the archaeological findings at this site where some canines are buried in close association with humans, a hypothesis is formulated for a further type, an amuletic animal mummy. Amuletic animal mummies — Anubis — tbe of human and animal remains — canines — Graeco-Roman period — metric analysis of dog crania — re-use of New Kingdom structures — Teti Cemetery.

Among other excavated material, 33 vessels with hieratic or demotic texts were found. All inscriptions are written in black ink and in a bold, sure hand. It is, however, clear that they are the work of more than one scribe. Both hieratic and demotic inscriptions mention materials used during mummification but some of them even specify the abusr of the process of mummification. Recent information about Ancient Egyptian animal husbandry has been derived mainly from representations at cultic places such as temples and tombs.

Despite the fact that these illustrations can be oddly interpreted, they can be misleading, for they reflect not real life, but an ideal conception.

Osteological material excavated during the seasons —09 in the site explored by the Czech Institute of Egyptology were analyzed. The results of these analyses contributed to our knowledge of animal husbandry, abuse of domestic animals, burial habits and other aspects of Ancient Egyptian life, as well as to e. Christiane Ziegler New Discoveries at Saqqara: Two undisturbed Late Period tombs q3 and n1 67 Abstract: They are situated in the area of the Akhetetep mastaba, to the north of the Unas causeway, and can be reached by shafts cutting through mastaba cores.


The Late Period Tombs are collective burials. They contain few loculi and stone sarcophagi and many wooden coffins and mummies covered by beautiful cartonnages. Other funerary items consist of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes and wooden chests found intact. Originating from the discovery of an anepigraphic monumental tomb in the excavation season of the Leiden Excavations at Saqqara, the problem tackled by this paper is the dating of tombs according to architectural features.

As previous studies of New Kingdom monumental architecture at Saqqara have been purely synchronic, ignoring developments over time, the present contribution seeks to initiate a discourse about change. The significance of the discussion can be found along two avenues: Leiden Excavations at Saqqara — dating of tombs — New Kingdom — monumental architecture — diachrony — history. The graffiti in the entrance passage of the Maidum pyramid were studied by G.

These published Maidum graffiti were analysed in the context of the history of pyramid complex destruction, as well as that of the chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

There are, however, several shorter graffiti, which remain unpublished. These graffiti were recorded by G. Gunn in cooperation with the expedition led by A.

Abusir and Saqqara in the Year : Miroslav Barta :

Rowe and the inscriptions were analysed later by J. This paper aims at presenting the unpublished graffiti. Maidum graffiti — New Kingdom — research, J. Preliminary results of the and seasons conducted by Macquarie University Abstract: Evidence was recovered indicating that the area was used for tombs and individual burials from the Old Kingdom through to abhsir Roman Period.

Remains of seven tomb structures were found two Old Kingdom, three New Kingdom, one Late Period and one Roman period as well as numerous individual burials ranging from the First Intermediate Period to the Roman Period. Indications point to the New Kingdom abusig chapels already having been stripped of their stone architectural elements by the time of the Roman Period.

Teti Cemetery — Saqqara — New Kingdom — tomb chapels. The tomb of the steward and later high-priest of the Aten, Meryneith, at Saqqara was found in As such, it can be compared to the notion of pragmatics in linguistic theory. Saqqara — Meryneith — Ancient Egypt 200 cemetery — archaeology — pragmatics. This study deals with anthropological remains found in the New Kingdom necropolis excavated by the Leiden University in Saqqara.

Comparison of two different groups dating to the New Kingdom and to the Ptolemaic Period revealed valuable data on the low mean yhe at death, based on the socioeconomic status of the buried population groups. The difference between the ones from the poor New Kingdom cemetery, who were not mummified, and the mummies of the saqqqara ones from the Ptolemaic vault, amounted to a low mean age difference of nearly five years. Cranial morphology qbusir the stability of the local population type of the Memphite area.

In both groups, morphological resemblance of pair individuals and increased frequency of some variations or anomalies revealed the blood relationship of the dead. Saqqara — New Kingdom — Ptolemaic period — anthropology — stability of the Memphite population.

Some of these shaft tombs were completely undisturbed and contained intact rectangular coffins from the late Middle Kingdom.

These discoveries provide us detailed information about the buried individuals and their burial customs, as well as presenting an unique opportunity to examine ritual and funerary activities performed at the ans of death.

Dahshur North — Tear Kingdom — shaft-tomb — coffin — burial customs — funerary ritual. Previous excavation work did not provide a definitive answer to the question as to whether or not the causeway was decorated.

Abusir and Saqqara in the Year – Miroslav Bárta, Jaromír Krejčí – Google Books

A number of blocks contain depictions of human activities, including stick-jousting and bee- keeping, and landscapes with wild and domesticated animals, fish, birds and a turtle. Inscriptions imply that at least some of the scenes probably belonged to representations of the seasons. Other fragments suggest scenes involving foreigners and zbusir military conflict. Portions of processions of deities, nomes, estates, fecundity figures and offering 200 were recovered.


Another group of fragments preserves parts of ships, some laden with cargo. The newly discovered relief fragments from the Senwosret Saqqarw causeway show that the continuity and tradition in the decorative programs of these structures stretched from the early Fifth Dynasty until at least the latter part of the Twelfth Dynasty.

This article deals with a new bas-relief scene from the causeway of Sahure at Abusir. The scene depicts high officials and groups of other officials with different titles in front saqsara what has been suggested to be a large figure of Sahura.

Depicted officials are known men who served King Sahure. Abusir — Old Kingdom — Sahura — pyramid complex — decoration — high officials — royal family — Seshemnefer I. In the pottery studies of the Old Kingdom period, the question of the chronological sensitivity and reliability of fine versus rough wares has been raised recently. With fine wares, the time span between their production and their deposition can reach up to several generations.

Contrarily, rough wares were entirely practical and were disposed of after several episodes of te.

The most abundant and most easily recognizable rough wares are, without doubt, beer jars and bread forms. Their high numbers and considerable variations in form make a detailed typological study essential, albeit difficult, as often three or more forms appear in one context. On the other hand, their typological variability makes them significant for chronological studies.

In this paper, the morphological development abusirr chronological relevance of bread forms from the recent excavations in the cemeteries of Abusir South te be compared with the known assemblages from the Memphite necropolis and the wider provincial production. Abusir — Old Kingdom — pottery — rough and fine ware — social and archaeological context — bread moulds.

An innovating introduction to the tomb Abstract: John Burn An ecological approach to determine the potential influence that the Pyramid Texts have had upon Sixth Dynasty tomb decorations Abstract: If the Pyramid Texts had any influence at all upon Sixth Dynasty tomb decorations, then it should be feasible to identify a correlation between tomb decoration programmes and the sequences of the Pyramid Texts. It would be expected that the distribution of the decorations should be observably different before and after the appearance of the Pyramid Texts.

The pattern that emerged suggests decorations changed in response to some influence other than the Pyramid Texts and suggests a new time frame for this inspiration. Old Kingdom — Pyramid Texts — distribution — tomb decoration. The presence of the name of Neit-ikrety in the Turin Canon has generated a number of important discussions in the past but, in a recent re-examination of the Turin Papyrus, K. This result has brought Ryholt to two significant conclusions: This article revisits the various arguments, old and new, relating to this controversial identity and offers an independent assessment of the evidence.

Violaine Chauvet Entrance-porticoes and Portico-chapels: Porticoes — monumental entrances supported by columns or pillars — are among the structural innovations which mark the transformation of private tombs into elaborate multi-functional monuments from the mid-Fifth Dynasty onwards. Originating in the necropolis of Abusir, this architectural feature is selectively adopted and adapted in the Memphite area with at least eight examples at Saqqara and ten at Giza.

The paper will focus on the analysis of the portico decoration, and consider the adaptation of the decorative programme within the structural setting, and the function of this architectural feature. The first theme to be discussed is public display: Which are the icons selected to be transferred to the outside of the tomb, and how are they adapted to external public display?

Which new themes emerge in relation to porticoes, and how do they relate to the developing concept of the biographical self?